nCounter® Human Organ
Transplant Panel

For organ transplant researchers looking to develop signatures pre- and post-transplant that may help determine risk of rejection and improve the understanding of transplant biology, the nCounter Human Organ Transplant Panel comprehensively profiles 770 genes across 37 pathways to identify biomarkers for rejection, uncover the mechanisms of tissue damage, and study toxicities brought on by immunosuppressive drugs.

  • Tumor, micro-environment, and immune response biology signatures tableStudy the immune response to transplanted tissue and analyze pathways involved in immunosuppression
  • Discover biomarkers for organ rejection and tissue damage for kidney, heart, liver, and lung
  • Evaluate immunosuppressive drug pathways
  • Understand mechanisms behind drug-induced toxicity
  • Identify BK Polyomavirus, Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus
  • Quantify the relative abundance of different immune cells

The Human Organ Transplant panel was created through a collaboration between NanoString and the Banff Foundation for Allograft Pathology, a global consortium of researchers from multiple prestigious institutes, including the University of Alberta, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Imperial College London, Massachusetts General Hospital, University of Oxford and the Paris Transplant Group. The consortium aims to improve organ transplant outcomes through advanced molecular characterization of the in-situ response in the allograft and to make available a transformational new approach for research that can be used to accelerate the identification of new biomarkers of rejection, uncover the mechanisms behind tissue damage, and monitor toxicities brought on by immunosuppressive drugs and infections.

  • Read the press release on the Introduction of the Human Organ Transplant Panel
  • Read the Banff 2019 Meeting Report to learn more about how the content for the Human Organ Transplant panel was created and how the Banff Molecular Diagnostics Working Group (MDWG) plans to maximize data collected using the panel through the formation of a consortium and access to a shared database.
Fadi Issa talking about the NanoString Human Organ Transplant Panel
Benjamin Adam talking about the NanoString Human Organ Transplant Panel
Michael Mengel talking about the NanoString Human Organ Transplant Panel

Adaptive Immune System
Apoptosis & Cell Cycle Regulation
B-Cell Receptor Signaling
Cell-ECM Interaction
Chemokine Signaling
Complement System
Cytokine Signaling
Cytosolic DNA Sensing
Epigenetics & Transcription
Innate Immune System
Lymphocyte Trafficking
MHC Class I Antigen Presentation
MHC Class II Antigen Presentation
NF-kB Signaling
NLR Signaling
Oxidative Stress
T-Cell Checkpoint Signaling
T-Cell Receptor Signaling
TGF-beta Signaling
Th1 Differentiation
Th17 Differentiation
Th17 Mediated Biology
Th2 Differentiation
Tissue Homeostasis
TNF Family Signaling
Toll-Like Receptor Signaling
Treg Differentiation
Type I Interferon Signaling
Type II Interferon Signaling


Solid organ and hematopoietic transplant recipients are at increased risk for developing complications from opportunistic viral infections and may even inherit a viral infection from the donor. Knowing if a viral infection is present can be essential to understanding both the immune response and the potential impact of immunosuppressive treatments. Included in the Human Organ Transplant panel are probes specific for the detection of BK Polyomavirus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

Virus Gene(s) Detected
BK Polyomavirus VP1, Large T Antigen


Probes included in the Human Organ Transplant Panel have been confirmed to also have high homology to non-human primates providing a valuable tool for translational comparative studies using both human and non-human samples.

Homology with Cynomolgus Monkey

% identity # Genes
>95% 682
>90% 730
>85% 740
>80% 743


Cell Type Description
B Cells B cells are the primary mediators of the humoral immune response, bearing antigen-specific B cell receptors and producing antibodies that can enable the immune system to respond to a broad variety of antigens. B cells can also function as MHC class II antigen presenting cells to stimulate T cell immunity.
T Cells T-cells mediate cell-based immunity by recognizing primarily peptide antigens displayed on MHC class I or class II and either producing cytokines or directly killing the presenting cell.
TH1 CD4+ T cell subset that produces IL2 and Interferon-gamma to promote cellular immunity by acting on CD8+ T Cells, NK Cells and Macrophages
Regulatory T Cells (Tregs) CD4+ T Cells that suppress effector B and T Cells and play a central role in suppression of the immune response and tolerance to self-antigens
CD8+ T Cells A subset of T cells that are capable of binding cognate-antigen expressing cells via class I MHC and directly lysing them via perforin and granzymes.
Exhausted CD8+ T Cells T-cells overstimulated by antigen can develop an "exhausted" phenotype, in which they are no longer effective in targeting antigen-bearing cells.
Cytotoxic Cells All cells capable of cytotoxic activity, which can include T, NKT, and NK-cells.
Dendritic Cells Professional antigen presenting cells that internalize, process, and present antigens to lymphocytes via MHC class I and class II along with costimulatory signals to initiate cellular immune responses.
Macrophages Pluripotent cells with critical roles in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses, phagocytosing abnormal cells, and regulating wound healing and tissue repair.
Mast Cells Mast cells release histamine containing granules and other signals in order to promote inflammation and regulate allergic responses.
Neutrophils Neutrophils are highly abundant cells that respond early to sites of infection or inflammation, phagocytose cellular debris, and promote downstream immunity.
Natural Killer (NK) Cells Cytotoxic cells of the innate immune system that are a significant source of interferon-gamma and are capable of directly killing targeted cells via detection of a loss in MHC surface expression.
NK CD56dim cells The amount of CD56 present on an NK cell is indicative of its age and differentiation state; CD56dim cells are mature NK cells, more commonly found in peripheral blood than secondary lymphoid tissues, and have the greatest cytolytic activity.


Feature Specifications
Number of Targets 770 (Human), including internal reference genes
Sample Input - Standard (No amplification required) 25-300 ng
Sample Input - Low Input As little as 1 ng with nCounter Low Input Kit (sold separately)
Sample Type(s) Cultured cells/cell lysates, sorted cells, FFPE-derived RNA, total RNA, fragmented RNA, PBMCs, and whole blood/plasma
Customizable Add up to 55 unique genes with Panel-Plus and up to 10 custom protein targets
Time to Results Approximately 24 hours
Data Analysis nSolver™ Analysis Software (RUO)


  1. Danaher, P et al. Gene Expression Markers of Tumor Infiltrating Leukocytes. J Immunother Cancer. 2017;21(5):18.
  2. Reeve, J et al. Generating automated kidney transplant biopsy reports combining molecular measurements with ensembles of machine learning classifiers. Am J Transplant. 2019;1-13.
  3. Wu, H et al. Single-Cell Transcriptomics of a Human Kidney Allograft Biopsy Specimen Defines a Diverse Inflammatory Response. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018;29:2069-80.
Product Product Description Quantity Catalog Number
nCounter Human Organ Transplant Panel Includes 760 genes; 10 internal reference genes for data normalization 12 Reactions XT-CSO-HOT1-12
nCounter Master Kit (MAX or FLEX Systems) Reagents and Cartridges Reagents, cartridges, and consumables necessary for sample processing on nCounter MAX and FLEX Systems 12 Reactions NAA-AKIT-012
nCounter SPRINT Cartridge 1 Cartridge, 12 lanes Sample Cartridge for nCounter SPRINT System 12 Reactions SPRINT-CAR-1.0
nCounter SPRINT Reagent Pack nCounter SPRINT Reagent Pack containing Reagents A, B, C, and Hybridization Buffer 192 Reactions SPRINT-REAG-KIT


For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.